streda 4. februára 2009

O pôvode názvov dunajských ostrovov Alberwerd a Rudten Leber. The etymology of the Danube Islands Alberwerd and Rudten Leber.

Pišút, P. 2005. O pôvode názvov dunajských ostrovov Alberwerd a Rudten Leber. Spisy Mestského múzea v Bratislave (Acta Musei Civitatas Bratislavensis), zväzok XVII. Bratislava, Mestské múzeum v Bratislave, s.

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Ostrovy Alberwertel a Rudten Leber (vtedy ešte ako bezmenná devínska niva, Töbner Au) na výseku mapy mestských nív od Juraja Rossboitnera z r. 1699. Mapa Jozefa v. Kiša z r. 1778, Archív mesta Bratislavy.
Topoľ čierny - Alber(n) (Populus nigra L.), osamelý mohykán z Vlčieho Hrdla. Foto P.Pišút.

Historical Danube island A l b e r w e r d (werd = older German term for river island) is first evidenced by written sources among several mediaeval islands of Bratislava in 1481 – 1525 (as Alberwer(d)t, Alberswerdt) and later in 1567 – 1578. Additional similar Alberwertel (wertel „little island“) is depicted on a 1698 – 1702 maps (Fig. 1). The island developed from the original gravel bar in the contemporary Danube mainchannel sometime in the late sixteenth- or early seventeenth century (Fig. 2). By colonisation and rapid growth of tree vegetation (Salix sp., Populus sp.) it gradually evolved into 1.7 km long Island of St. Nicolaus (Fig. 3). Alber(n) is German term for a Poplar tree (Populus L.). The local Germans of Pressburg (Bratislava) narrowed its meaning to the Black Poplar (Populus nigra L.). Modern Slovak equivalent for a toponym Alberwerd is „(Black) Poplar Island“. Several hydro- and toponyms were derived from Poplar trees or stands, e. g. the name of the village Albern (today part of Simmering, Vienna city district) or former island Alber(n)haufen (1880 - 1991) near Regensbrunn, at the Austrian stretch of the Danube floodplain upstream from Bratislava.
There was another island with an interesting name close to Alberwertel. Whereas in 1698-1702 (Fig. 1) it was still an unnamed island in possession of Devín (Töbner Au), during 18th century (Fig. 3, 6) it became larger and known as Ru(d)ten-Leber island (Fig. 6). The name consists of German words Rutte(n) and Leber „liver“. Die Rutte (or der Rutten) is the Upper German name for the fish Burbot (Freshwater Codfish, Eelpout, Lota lota, Fig. 5). Burbot is the only European freshwater representative of the Codfish family, common in the Danube. The liver of Burbot have long been a culinary delicacy. The Rudten Leber island was „The Burbot´s Liver“! This bizarre name must have been given to the island by fishermen. Most probably, there was a near resemblance between planform of initial island, clearly seen from adjacent hillslopes (= mid-channel vegetated bar with two accreting lateral gravel bars) and specific three-lobed shape of burbot´s liver. From fishermen´s slang also come names of other local disappeared islands (Gressling; Wolfssdrüssel / Fischdrüssel; Fűszort) and channels (Karpfenwasser).
The 18th Century Rudten Leber island eventually developed into the current Sihoť island, which plays an important role in supplying of drinking water to Bratislava.