utorok 28. júna 2011

Dunajská povodeň roku 1787 a Bratislava.

Pišút, P., 2011. Dunajská povodeň roku 1787 a Bratislava (The 1787 flood of the River Danube in Bratislava). Geografický časopis, 63 (1): 87-109, English abstract and summary.

The flood that occurred at the turn of October and November of 1787 was probably the second largest one on record of the last millenium in the River Danube. This "All Saints´flood hit most badly the Austrian reach of the Upper Danube and the Slovak section of the Middle Danube with the severest material damage to the area of contemporary greater Bratislava (suburbs of Petržalka and Rusovce). With the estimated peak flow of 11,800 m3.s-1 it had a character of a 200-500 year flood in Bratislava. This paper is aimed to reconstruct the causes, course and effects of the flood, mainly based on analysis of contemporary reports published in the local German newspaper Presburger Zeitung, supplemented by the 1781-1790 manuscipt maps. This flood was exceptional for its occurrence in the autumn period with pronounced geomorphic effects. Fortunately, the high flow only took a minimum toll of lives in Slovakia and its destructive impact on residential buildings, boat mills and vessels was not as devastating as in the case of other large floods, especially those caused by the jammed ice. Nevertheless, it was one of the most destructive events (1787, 1809) that badly damaged the right-bank artificial levee of Petržalka, an important local protective structure intended to prevent flooding and facilitate transportation to Vienna.

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pondelok 3. januára 2011

Šúrsky les a Panónsky háj na starších mapách

Pišút, P., Timár, G., Vidlička, Ľ. 2010. Šúrsky les a Panónsky háj na starších mapách. In Majzlan, O., Vidlička, Ľ. (eds.) Príroda rezervácie Šúr. Ústav zoológie SAV, pp. 23-66. In Slovak, with English abstract, 1 Tab, 26 Figs.

Šúr a Panónsky háj v roku 1769 na chotárnej mape mape Svätého Jura, ktorú zhotovil Samuel Krieger. Dnešné hranice rezervácií sú vyznačené modrou a čiernou čiarou.
Nature Reserve Šúr and Panónsky háj woodlands on 1769 local manuscript maps by Samuel Krieger, that has been georeferred into the current S-JTSK system.
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Paleofloristic and paleofaunistic analysis of Dudváh River oxbow and implication for Late Holocene paleoenvironmental development...

Pišút, P., Břízová, E., Čejka, T., Pipík, R. 2010: Paleofloristic and paleofaunistic analysis of Dudváh River oxbow and implication for Late Holocene paleoenvironmental development of the Žitný ostrov Island (SW Slovakia). Geologica Carpathica, 2010, 61 (6): 513-533.

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Abstract: Žitný ostrov, the largest island of the Danube River (SW Slovakia) was formed to its present-day shape in the Neoholocene period. As a result of increased flood and geomorphological Danube river activity dated to 1378-1528 AD, the lower Dudváh River was abandoned and its alluvium became a part of the Žitný ostrov. Study of Dudváh terrestrialised palaeomeander by means of pollen and macrofossil analysis provides new information about the palaeoenvironments of the Danube Plain. Meander under study was cut-off during the Sub-Boreal period when the land was mostly covered by oak-dominated mixed forest with a notable high frequency of Fagus and Abies. At low-lying depressions, Alnus glutinosa have formed typical alder carrs. The largest decline of the mixed forest occurred during the Sub-Atlantic period. Until the mid-19th century the region was strongly influenced by shallow groundwater and periodical floods, as reflected by pollen of aquatics and marsh species. Amongst non-arboreal taxa, pollen of Cyperaceae, Brassicaceae/Cuscuta, Poaceae and Apiaceae prevailed. Local successional changes started with i. stage of abandoned oxbow still with influx of moving water, poor in both macrophytes and molluscs, ii. shallow eutrophic oxbow lake with slowly flowing or stagnant water overgrowing with aquatics (Ranunculus subgen. Batrachium, Potamogeton sp., Ceratophyllum demersum etc.) abound with molluscs, iii. an open marsh dominated by Cyperaceae (mainly Carex riparia) with Atriplex prostrata, supporting diverse molluscan and Ostracod fauna. Present-day habitat is a result of landscape changes, which have been associated with draining, intensified agriculture, ruderalisation and spread of invasive species.