štvrtok 24. januára 2008

Humér – zaniknutá stredoveká rieka

Pišút, P., 2007. Humér - zaniknutá stredoveká rieka (Humér - disappeared medieval river).

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Before planform simplification, several channels were part of anabranching Danube River on the stretch between Bratislava and Komárno. This paper examines a disappeared medieval channel, reportedly over 30 km long, called Humér (in Hungarian: homorú „hollow, curved“, ér „river channel“). In medieval charters it is evidenced from several places, including the villages of Podunajské Biskupice, 16 km away Lehnice (1313 – 1325), Veľké Blahovo / Vydrany (fluvium Humurus, 1298) and the village of Ohrady (marsh Humoro, 1327). Reconstruction of former palaeochannel is based on historical, toponymical and geomorphological evidence (medieval charters data, 18th-19th century and modern topographical maps, field survey). It was found that at least two different channels of the same name existed at the area in question in the past. First and the most important Humér was a side channel of Malý Dunaj flowing from Podunajské Biskupice across Most n. Ostrove, Tomášov to Janíky. This meandering channel (= sinuosity degree 2.19) was only 20-30 m wide but at least 27 km long and it powered several water mills. It was abandoned some time after 1338. Another Humér was flowing via present-day Miloslavov across Mierovo towards the villages of Sása / Lehnice. Most probably, this branch was inactive as early as 1493 and had no connection with additional records of Humér from distant territories of Veľké Blahovo, Vydrany, Ohrady and Nekyje. Rather, they indicate that toponym homorú could be quite common name of minor meandering streams on the territory of historical Hungary.